Humans are violent, and it is about time we admit it

Humans are violent. From the sports we watch to the way we consume news, we are a violent species. Doubt my statement? How quickly do we all tune in to see what’s gong on with the latest mass shooting. While we can all agree these things are tragic, I think it is hard to miss the anger and violence the two sides feel towards each other on the whole gun control debate.

One side says “take those guns by any means necessary,” and I assume that means forced confiscation…a safe assumption as many people have said that is exactly how to solve the problem os the millions of guns in the hands of civilians.

The other side says, “let’s get more good guys with guns and shoot back.”

Both use violence in their response to violence, all the while bemoaning the violent act as something they are against.

I was watching an older History Channel special on the Zodiac killer. If you aren’t familiar with this wackadoodle he killed a large number of people in the late 60s and early 70s. He taunted the police with letters written in codes, and was never caught. He killed (depending on the numbers you believe) 7 to 37 people. I know, a single mass shooting does more.

Zodiac was different, he stabbed, brutally, random people. Up close and personal. This wasn’t a guy in a hotel shooting out a window. This was a guy who took a knife, came close to a person, stabbed them until they died, and was never caught. The descriptions of him are vague, and can match probably 10-15% of the population.

The reason this particular special made me realize just how violent we are is that this guy was likely someone who held a normal job, had friends, and no one knew. He may have had a family, who knows.

However, people were obsessed with the case. Everyone wanted (and still) wants to know who it is or was. These murders were 50 years ago, and yet people are still fascinated by this level of killing.

We want to see the blood.

No matter if it is serial killers, an accident we pass in traffic that we just have to see, or the most recent mass shooting, humans love violence. Until we admit that, and take steps to find ways to curb our violent desires we will continue to see people murdered for no reason other than someone felt like killing a bunch of people. Even if it isn’t killing someone, humans will try to take each other’s property by force, or shoot someone for trying to do so.


Soft Leather Football Helmets, the first evolution in head protection for the NFL

In a previous article, the first in the series on the evolution of the football helmet, we discussed the time period when the game was played without any kind of head protection. It was an interesting thought process to go through; how would the game be different, would injuries go up or down, would tackling be different, etc. In this article we are looking at the time period starting around 1920ish when players started wearing soft leather helmets, generally with no face mask.

These helmets appeared in the sport around the same time as the NFL was formed. Prior to the use of these helmets some players would attempt to protect their head by growing long hair for the cushion it might offer. That didn’t prevent player deaths from occurring. While the helmetless play, and even the soft leather helmets were used in a different time one thing that is sometimes forgotten is that during this time period people would be killed by injuries received during the game.

In one case there was a kid with a broken back who took two days to die, other cases it was severe blows to the head, but deaths from the sport almost caused it to be banned on college campuses and if that had happened the NFL would have never been formed, or if it had been formed likely would have been disbanded early on.

Let’s get back to the soft leather helmets.

There are a number of “stories” concerning the first ever helmet. Who built it? Who wore it? Why?

The most common of these is that the very first one ever was built by a shoemaker. That craftsman was trying to protect a player who had been kicked in the head one too many times and caused him to start to behave like a boxer who blocked one too many punches with his face. Whoever did it and why they did it isn’t really important. The point is that someone had the thought that all the head injuries, and some of the fatalities that the sport was experiencing might be reduced if something was done to protect the old melon up on the shoulders.

These helmets were made out of soft leather, somewhat similar to some types of boots, with a bit of padding sewn into them to increase the shock absorption. They had flaps that came down over the ears, and left ear holes, just like the modern helmets. These ear holes help players hear what is going on, at least back then. In a modern stadium with all the crowd noise hearing what is going on is always a challenge.

This particular helmet evolution did enough to get some measure of safety, or at least comfort level, with the sport so that it could be formalized into the NFL and more colleges would start to have organized teams. Would the NFL exist today without this evolution? Well…maybe. Was it safer to play the game with these helmets than with nothing on your head? Yes, it was. The number of fatalities went down. They offered protection without offering a sense of invincibility (which some people have said the modern helmets give).

Would the game be better if we brought back something along these lines? Would it be safer?

Probably not, but can we learn from the way injuries were reduced, take the lessons learned from this bit of technology and work towards a safer future? We should always learn from history.

Football with no helmet? Evolution of the helmet part 1…

Why aren’t coaches, trainers, and various football organizations doing more to protect players, especially from head injuries? That is an interesting question, and one asked more often than it once was. In order to figure that out we decided to look into the evolution of the football helmet, what it is made of, and how well it works to protect the head from injury.

First, let’s remember that the American style of the sport has been around since the 1860s. Think about that, it has been with us more than a century and a half. That is a long time, and it has evolved greatly from the stand point of rules, perception, and safety equipment. Let’s dive in and look at helmets as they have changed, and when they first appeared.

Starting in these earliest games the players did not wear helmets. It was a much different game, there was protective head gear. Nothing, nada, zip, zero. When you stepped onto the field to face the very large men on the other team who wanted to throw you to the ground, there was nothing on your melon. Now, is that a good or a bad thing? Well, as we discuss the various styles of helmets, opinions on that matter may change.

You may think no helmet was a good idea, you may think even larger, more protective helmets are. We are not here to sway an argument, merely to give you facts from the perspective of how these different helmets function, what injuries were common during their use, and how they integrate into the game from the player perspective.

The era of no helmets


When football first came on the scene it was mainly played between colleges, and there wasn’t any kind of professional “get paid to play” organized version of the sport. As anyone can tell you when there isn’t a profit motive the budgets for organizing the sport are considerably smaller. Just look at the safety equipment budget difference between a university, a high school, and the NFL. There is a considerable difference in the cost, and level of performance of the various safety equipment used during gameplay.

We can assume when the sport was new, no one really understood what injuries might happen and what equipment was needed to improve player safety. That, coupled with the low budgets to non-existent budgets to pull together a game, let to people just getting dress, and heading out to the field.

This era didn’t last long, as the first use of a helmet we can find was in 1893 during and Army Navy game in Annapolis. Were head injuries common during this period of time? It is really hard to tell. There was no tracking of the players, no collection of doctor’s reports, and medicine was much different then than it is now. Could a concussion have even been accurately diagnosed? Considering that concussions were not fully understood by medical professionals at this time, the likelihood is low.

Now, let’s look at it from the gameplay standpoint. Would someone not wearing a helmet tackle another person in the same way as one wearing a helmet? I think a quick examination of rugby (a similar sport that has optional helmets) says no. Could a switch in tackling technique lower the rate of injury, and allow the game to be just as much fun to play, and for us to watch?

Well, let’s look at a rugby tackle versus an NFL “welcome to the gridiron” style tackle.


Remember, Rugby players, for the most part, don’t wear helmets. Their tackling style, as a result, is much different. They use their arms and have a much different target point on the ball carrier. In this sport players are taught to take their use their body to wrap up around the legs of the ball carrier. This is in stark contrast to football as the two players heads never really enter into the equation. The only time a head may be in jeopardy is when the players, as a jumble, hit the ground (recall also rugby is on grass not artificial turf, and don’t get us started on turf just yet). This is hugely different than an American Football tackle.

In the games we all watch on Sundays the typical tackling technique is different. It is sometimes called the “head across the bow” method. In this version of football, oftentimes, the tackling is aimed differently. Sure, there are times when someone grabs a foot or a leg to trip a guy up, but those aren’t the tackles that typically cause the most severe injury. Lots of tackles are aimed at the chest with the defensive player forcing their head across the chest of the ball carrier. Sometimes that head is forced up, and you get a helmet on helmet collision.

The force of these collisions is huge. Two NFL level football players when added together will have a combined weight of four hundred to five hundred pounds. If they are moving at full speed, well, it’s going to hurt, with or without pads. So, could a change in tackling technique make the difference in these injuries? Maybe it could. If we took away players helmets AND taught a different tackling technique would that make it safer? Well, who knows, but I guarantee you defensive guys would be much more selective in how they tackled, and would certainly not “use their heads” as much as they do with those helmets in place.

We leave it up to you to think about these things, and come to your own conclusion. This is merely offered to kick start a discussion revolving around the best way for players to play the game, and be able to go home in the same condition they showed up to the field.

Gronkowski gets 1 game suspension, WHERE ARE ALL THE GROWNUPS!!!

Gronkowski is a walking talking moron that demonstrates exactly what is wrong with the nation these days in more ways that are immediately noticeable.

We all know that he had a late hit in last week’s game that was absolutely out of line.

If you aren’t familiar with it see my post on that topic:

The NFL official statement written by Jon Runyan, Vice President of football operations said the following:

“Your actions were not incidental, could have been avoided and placed the opposing player at risk of serious injury. The Competition Committee has clearly expressed its goal of ‘eliminating flagrant hits that have no place in our game.’ Those hits include the play you were involved in yesterday,”

Gronkowski after the game apologized and then made some really weak excuse about “frustration.” Yeah, ok, it’s the fourth quarter, the Patriots are clearly going to win, so I get the frustration? Is there a sarcasm emoji on this thing?

This is a picture of Gronk after the game. Does he look sorry?


So Gronk gets a 1 game suspension, and he appealed that. 1 game. That’s it. My mother used to ground me for longer than that for being 20 minutes late on curfew (ok that was almost 30 years ago but still).

This isn’t about right or wrong, it isn’t even about sending a message or stopping this kind of behavior. Gronk gets people to tune in. This is about ratings and money. The owners want him to play so their TV deals can be more profitable, that’s all this is.

Sit down Gronk, be a man (for once), own up to what you did and do more than an apology you were forced to give. I expect more of my 8 year old than that.

Tre’Davious White versus the freight train

This website is about injuries, how they happen, when they happen and how they might be prevented in the future.

Sometimes this is educational for players, other times this is equipment oriented. Whatever the mechanism to stop the injury, we want to discuss it here, openly and honestly.

This weekend there was a very cheap shot thrown by one Rob Gronkowski.

gronk hit

The hit in question came after a play ended; Tre’Davious White was on the ground, face forward, half out of bounds. Anyone in their right mind would have known the play was over, and let’s also take a moment to point out that the whistle had blown. (Yes there was a flag on the play, and we know that, it isn’t the point).

Mr. White was injured. He got up very slowly, and immediately left the game to go into the concussion protocol. When Tre’Davious White took off his helmet his eyes were closed and he obviously had problems to cope with. The concussion protocol was exactly the right move.

Gronk stayed in the game.

So, there is the situation, now let’s look at the mechanics of what happened.

Mr. Gronkowski weighs around 265 pounds; add to that his equipment and you have a 275 pound missile that threw himself at the head of another player.

When you look at hits, and I designed military armor for a living for a while, you want to have a hit that is spread out over a large area. It means the impact is lessoned. Look at a bullet; they are shaped to a point, so that the impact is greater on a tiny area. Spread that impact out over a larger area and it doesn’t penetrate as far, or do as much damage.

So, what does this have to do with Mr. Gronkowski? A lot.

Look at the hit.

The man he hit, Tre’Davious White, weighs 192 pounds. Compare that to Gronk, and you have a large mass hitting a smaller mass. We all understand the physics of that.

Now, let’s go one step further and look at what Gronk did. He threw himself through the air, like a bullet, at Tre’Davious White’s head. Worse than that, he extended his elbow to intentionally drive his entire weight, moving quickly through the air, into the man’s head.

Now, let’s look more closely at Mr. Gronkowski’s safety equipment.  He was wearing an elbow brace with metal rods sticking out beyond his actual elbow. This safety equipment is what hit the back of Tre’Davious White’s head, and not Gronk’s actual wrist. So, put another way, Gronk didn’t feel a thing from this collision.

So, now let’s get back to the target in this case, the rookie Tre’Davious White. He didn’t see the hit coming, had no chance to brace for impact, and thereby the full force of the impact was going to be felt. It hit the back of his helmet full force, pile driving his head into the dirt.

Ok, the helmet will stop his head from being crushed, but let’s think about the physics for a second.

Sir Isaac Newton taught us this thing called conservation of energy. That means energy from something doesn’t just disappear, it is going to go someplace. In this case if you watch the video, the young Mr. White was hit in the head, hyperextending his neck, causing certainly some whiplash, his head bounced off the ground. So let’s see what all of this means.

Let’s focus on the head for a minute. The human brain is not attached to the skull in any way. It floats in a fluid. I was researching traumatic brain injury in soldiers when I met, on many occasions medical doctors specializing in brain trauma. We were discussing how to make helmets that can protect soldiers from head injuries. I learned a lot about how the brain and the body interact.

Anyway, the point is the brain isn’t connected and floats in this fluid. So they tell me, when dehydrated, you can get a headache caused by this fact. However, in the case of whiplash like you see going on with Tre’Davious White his head bounced around a few times in rapid succession after the childlike hit by Gronk. That means that his brain hit one side of his skull, then the other side, and back again a few times.

If you think that isn’t a problem, I have some beachfront property to sell in Arizona.

So, now let’s look at his neck. His neck took a great deal of force from this hit. The spine is a big part of that piece of your body. His spine also took a great deal of this hit. If damage (any level) of how that damage occurred between his spine and his brain his motor skills can be impacted.

In short, Gronk’s antics likely caused a concussion, could have damaged motor skills, and has taken a first year player and may have destroyed some of his career moving forward.

How can this have been prevented? Would safety equipment have made a difference? Maybe, but there are two ways this might have been changed.

My guess is that Gronkowski knew he wouldn’t feel a thing thanks to the brace on his arm. So, why not use that to your advantage? That piece of equipment can be, and was used as a weapon. Perhaps that type of brace, while keeping Gronkowski safe should be reviewed as something that shouldn’t be allowed for the obvious reason.

Now, let’s look at Tre’Davious White’s equipment. Can something be designed to have protected him in this case? Well maybe, but is that necessary.

I think in this case the league has an opportunity here that can prevent future injuries. Fining Gronkowski isn’t going to help. A quick google search shows that he lives off endorsements and saves 100% of his NFL salary making his net worth in excess of $16Million, so fining him, while it makes a great headline, doesn’t help much.

You want to stop this kind of thing and prevent a future injury of this short the league can send a message. Take the guy who is on the current iteration of Madden whatever software, take an offensive player the Patriot’s lean on and suspend him for a very long time. The Patriots will fight that, but if I were the owner (a.k.a. Employer) of a guy who did this, I’d fire him. I don’t care how many games it costs it does not send a good message to the fans, and REALLY doesn’t send a good message to the countless young players just entering the game, hoping to make it to the NFL that watch Gronk and want to be like him.

We need to end these types of antics, and keep players safe. Gronk needs to be dealt with, and I wish Mr. Tre’Davious White a speedy recovery.

Gronkowski is a child, a bully, and a moron wrapped into one

Gronk…Gronk…Gronk…I have been a New England Patriots fan for a while. I moved to the Boston area about ten years ago in pursuit of the woman I love, and even though I left that area for Dallas where I now reside, I have remained a Patriots fan. I take heat for it, but I’m there in the camp of the Pats every week.

Gronk, you pissed me off.

This hit, childlike behavior, it is not professionalism; it isn’t even sportsman like conduct. Dude, seriously what were you thinking.

With all the head injuries, all the CTE, all the crap that players endure to bring the viewing public a relaxing afternoon you risk Mr. White’s health because you didn’t like something that happened. This is the kind of thing a school yard bully does.

I know they won’t because you are a great player, but if I owned the team I’d release you immediately. Winning is important but so is the ability of other people to go home after a game to their families. Grow up Gronk. You may have cost the Patriots more than one member of their fan base with this. I hope it made you feel better, because the NFL has taken enough hits of late, you need to learn to operate as an adult.

HEMP – A lot more useful than I thought part 1 of 5

I have been digging into a variety of industries lately for some reasons I can’t really share. One that keeps coming high up on the list (pun intended) is the HEMP industry. The stuff is so much more useful than I thought it was. Yes, it has one very specific recreational use. But it has a ton more than that particular one. This is the first in a five part series on the subject.

Hemp is one of the oldest and most versatile crops in the world. It was first cultivated (near as I can tell) sometime in the 2nd century B.C.E.

Using Hemp seeds for health issues has been around nearly that long, therefore I am going to start the discussion with some discussion of Hemp Seeds.

Hemp seeds have been used for generations by “natural medicine” practitioners and are gaining a foothold in the more mainstream health product market for their many benefits. Hemp seeds are high in nutritional value containing the perfect ratio of the omega 3 and omega 6 essential amino acids that our bodies sometimes can’t produce naturally. This helps with weight loss and increased immunity to disease. Eating hemp seeds whole or mixing their extract with food or beverage is providing a wide variety of ways to apply these benefits in the industries of medicine, dietary supplementation and sports nutrition.

Adding hemp seeds to your diet, maybe replace poppy seeds with these, is a quick way improve the way you look, act and feel. They are rich in a variety of nutrients (including all of the 20 essential amino acids) hemp seeds have shown to aid in the following:

  • Promoting a healthy hear
  • Keeping the digestive system in working order
  • Strengthening muscles and tissues
  • Lowering cholesterol
  • Acting as an anti-inflammatory (think about it for people with arthritis)
  • Keeping skin in good condition without the need of lotions
  • Promoting hormonal balance


All of this just from the seeds. I am sure we can name another 20, but these are things that always seem to get lost in the world of “should we legalize it or not.”

Tomorrow we get to seed oil, but I think this is a good enough place to start.

I say if the stuff is this useful (at least in seed form) these are great reasons it should be around, and not controversial.

But that’s just one guy’s opinion.




What the hell is in a pop tart?

My wife had a blog for a while trying to explain what is in the prepared foods we seem to be obsessed with.  She is a Chemical Engineer, and a mom of three. Trying to dissect what is on that “ingredient” list is a unique challenge. This one came to thought this morning for a variety of reasons and I still very interesting reading. The kids are now 8, 6 and 4 but everything else is as accurate today as when it was originally written.


Written by Jean Imholt

As a mom of three children, ages 5, 4, and 2, I constantly think about what my children are eating.  Let’s face it, the little people eat all the time – breakfast (sometimes second breakfast if the first one was not sufficient), morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner (followed by dessert on occasion).  It is a never ending cycle of thinking about what to feed them, what is for dinner, what staple item is running out in our pantry and fridge, and what to pack for their lunch at school.  Life is hectic as is and we tend to reach for the easy quick solutions to satisfy their never ceasing appetite. Thankfully I am a stay at home mom now and I should have more time than those who work in addition to taking care of their family.  It is an incredibly hard balancing act trying to fit everything in one day’s time and often we don’t or can’t put enough thought and preparation into what we eat… so we opt for ready to eat, processed, fast food, or restaurant food.

I recently saw a documentary entitled Fed Up and it opened my eyes to the dangers of everyday normal foods we purchase at the grocery store and some restaurants.  The rising epidemic of childhood obesity and other related metabolic diseases was astounding and downright scary.  I have heard and read about the unhealthful nature of many processed foods but now I was acutely curious about what is really in them.  I feel that my formal training in chemical engineering with the research background equips me well in this investigation that will hopefully educate myself and my family as well as many others that are concerned about eating healthier. For my very first analysis, I chose Pop-tarts.  I can’t remember the last time I ate one of these – probably when I was in high school.  Several weeks ago, my husband picked up a box of Pop-tarts at the grocery store, thinking perhaps the kids might like them.

He thought he could also eat them for breakfast on the run.  I remember making a face.  Well, here is the nutritional facts printed on the box. pop tart The serving size is one pastry but when you open the box, two pastries are wrapped together, suggesting we should eat two.  I for one, would not be satisfied with eating just one for breakfast.  So if you are going to eat two, you have to double everything you see on this nutrition facts.  Therefore you will be consuming 12 g of total fat and 28 g of sugar, among other things.  What is 28 g of sugar?  One teaspoon of granulated sugar is 4 g of sugar.  In other words, 28 g of sugar is equivalent to 7 teaspoons of sugar.  What is the recommended daily dose of sugar for adults?  There are two different standards – one by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the other, the American Heart Association.  The former recommends 6 teaspoons of sugar per day, while the latter recommends 6 for women and 9 for men per day. Regardless of which guideline you follow, you’ve already blown your sugar intake for the day if you eat two pastries of Pop-tart for breakfast.  Yikes. Breakfast is said to be the most important meal of the day, but from a sugar perspective you are now done. Now let’s take a closer look at what else is lurking in this portable quick and easy breakfast pastry.  Corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup, and dextrose are all various forms of sugar, depending on where they come from and their molecular structure.  But once ingested, they all are seen as refined sugar in our body and turns to fat until it is burned off.  This is why refined sugar without the fiber (unlike in fruit) is very bad, for it is stored as fat mostly in our midsection. I also noticed several different colorants or food dyes – caramel color, red 40, yellow 6. The most glaring one is Red 40, which is the most widely used food coloring.  It is chemically derived from petroleum and is known to cause symptoms of hypersensitivity in some people, as well as hives and swelling in the mouth, According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest.  Yellow 6 contains known carcinogens (cancer causing agents) and other contaminants that increase hyperactivity and allergic reaction in some children.  Recent analysis and studies found some compelling evidence linking these food dyes to hyperactivity, restlessness, and attention deficit problems in children with ADHD.  Further, the same studies claims that removing these food dyes from their diet was 25-50% as effective in reducing the symptoms as the drugs usually prescribed for ADHD.  These artificial dyes are literally everywhere in snack foods to cereal to entice our children. Other ingredients that stick out because they are hard to pronounce include Niacinamide, citric acid, soy lecithin, xanthan gum, and vitamin a palmitate. Niacinamide is vitamin B3 (also used a lot in cosmetic products), citric acid is a natural preservative that also adds sour taste to the food, soy lecithin is an oily substance derived from soy that is used as an emulsifier (making things stay mixed and not separate), xanthan gum is produced via fermentation of glucose, sucrose, or lactose (forms of sugar) and used as a thickening agent, and vitamin A palmitate is synthetically produced and used to fortify foods but it has been found that high doses were shown to accelerate cancer in lab animals.  Vitamin A palmitate is also found in eye lubricant and sun screen.

There are other vitamins listed on the ingredients, all synthetically produced.  Why?  Because most of the naturally occurring vitamins are stripped away during the milling of breads and refining of flour for cereals.  In order to make up for the loss of nutrients during processing, the synthetic vitamins and minerals are added, which are not as healthy as their natural counterparts. The analysis of the Pop-tart ingredients shows the shear amount of sugar and numerous chemicals that are not from nature.  This is just one example of processed food.  You have to wonder what the long term cumulative effects of these chemicals in your body might be if you eat this kind of food on a daily basis.

Race War or Police War while we wait for Star Wars?

I try to stay informed, watch the news, read articles, and know what is going on in the world. I see a lot of arguments about “false news,” or “pay attention to this group, not that groupo because they have some kind of mental disorder,” and frankly I’m sick of it.

There is a trend in this country of hating police that deserves some measure of understanding. So, what is a guy like me to do? I’m just a scientist (22 patents and counting, which is something that makes me more proud than my PhD), author (I love writing), father (love my kids) and taxpayer (hate the IRS).

Are there bad policemen or policewomen in the world? Absolutely. Have some of the members of the force done things that deserve punishing, absolutely.

Does that mean every single policeman or policewoman (from this point forward I intend to use only policeman and am by no means discounting policewomen when I do so), is a bad person deserving of being degraded, or worse injured/killed? Absolutely not.

Just like not every person that gets pulled over is guilty of more than just driving badly. People, in and out of uniform, deserve our respect. I try to respect people by default when I meet them, until that individual loses that respect. I hope that’s the way most people do things, but let’s face it, that’s not what happens.

There is a racial war going on in this nation. There is also a war against people in certain uniforms going on.

Here is the rub that I see.

Policians claim that there is no price tag that exists that would stop them from protecting the men and women in uniform. To that I say bullshit, but more about that in a minute.

I don’t ever see a politician say there is no price tag that exists that will stop us from protecting our citizenry. Police and citizens should not be divided into camps….ever.

Ok, so what’s my point. City budgets, in fact government budgets in general have grown over the past decades. They have grown a lot. They are constnatly mismanaged and TONS of cash wasted on things that just aren’t needed. Then we buy things that are way more expensive than is necessary for a specific problem.

How do I know this? Ok, let’s look at certain police forces. There are some grand architecture projects going on at various police headquarters to make things look nice. Ok, great, that’s cool, but how about work nice. Let’s worry about functionality instead of grand appearance.

Let’s look at equipment. There is some flow of military equipment going to SWAT teams. This equipment (MRAP, ETC) is hugely expensive to maintain and frankly not as useful as other options that are out there.

Did the politicians think about it wrong? Well, maybe.

WTF am I talking about?

An MRAP is a vehicle that is starting to make its way into law enforcement (or being discussed as such). It is shockingly expensive to keep on the road and stops bullets and bombs in ways most police forces rarely experience.

There are companies right here in the United States that can uparmr a Ford F150 to stop 7.62 Armor Piercing round and that truck can be purchased for less than the annual upkeep on one of those massive MRAP vehicles. Plus throw in that the uparmored F150 looks like a regular F150 from the outside, and we have a vehicle that is more practical because it doesn’t stand out, and can be used for more than the MRAP, like serving high risk warrants.

Just ranting here but I am absolutely certain that if we stop dividing people and start thinking rather than reacting out of emotion our government services will cost less, and provide a better result.